Will it be the “White smoke” from the 10 billion Cash transfer to the disabled Kenyans? Author Mugambi Paul and DR Siyat.

Over the last 3 weeks the Kenyan government has been excoriated on the measure it would avail to the poor due to the hard-economic times and the coming in of Covid-2019 pandemic. Talking of poverty,

several studies show disabled Kenyans are the largest minority who face this tragedy.

Kenyans with disabilities are disproportionately affected by the current situation, as we are by all-natural disasters and major crises. It is vital that our

voices are part of developing solutions, innovating, problem solving.

as 2 experts we are deeply concerned about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on disabled Kenyans, chronic ill persons and the elderly. Bearing in mind that Kenyans with disabilities are among the Kenya’s most marginalized and stigmatized even under normal circumstances.

This requires us all to act, interact and communicate in different ways than we are used to. However, the social inequalities

degeneration COVID19’s impact on Kenyans with disabilities are not new. The risk in the response to the current crisis is that disabled Kenyans

will be left behind once again. The good news is that we already know what works. Fundamentally, we need social justice, equality of opportunities and

decent work.

According the UN Special Rapporteur on the rights of persons with disabilities “The pandemic is an unprecedented public health,

social and economic emergency that requires swift and effective action by Kenyan public and private sectors, and the society at large.

We know that COVID-19 is more serious for those with underlying health conditions and particularly those who are immunocompromised. What does this outbreak mean for the Kenyan Disability community?

Both national and county Governments should ensure they take

all necessary measures to ensure the protection and safety of disabled persons, aged and persons with chronic illnesses] Ilo 2020 WHO 2020 UN 2020 HI 2020 [.

 Legal framework:

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities states that people with disability have the right to health without discrimination

on the basis of disability, including access to population-based public health programmes (Article 25) and that governments also have a duty to take all

necessary measures to ensure the protection and safety of persons with disabilities in situations of risk (Article 11).

 

Facts to consider:

Providentially, even in non-pandemic circumstances, people with disability are more likely than the general population to have health issues, compromised immunity, increased

risk of morbidity, comorbidities and are more likely to die from preventable causes] Whiteford 2011 DFID 2013, HI 2015un 2012].

According to several studies Some disabled Kenyans will be unable to maintain social distancing

practices because they rely on support workers for vital daily personal care, such as eating, drinking, walking, mobility toileting and dressing.

in addition, disabled Kenyans often rely on family, friends and care givers to provide essential services. During the Corona pandemic, these people may not be able

to provide their usual support.   

Also, in different Kenyan social media platforms disabled Kenyans like many in the broader community, are expressing anxiety about the COVID-19 pandemic.

Of course, this nervousness is exacerbated by the feeling that they are being left behind or ignored by Kenyan government, private sector and community Corona responses.

Background of social assistance programmes:

Current social assistance programmes include the Older Persons Cash Transfer Programme; the Orphaned and Vulnerable Children Cash Transfer Programme; the Persons with Severe Disabilities Cash Transfer Programme; the Hunger Safety Net Programme; and the Urban Food Subsidy Programme. The effective implementation of these programmes is constrained by challenges such as how to refine inclusion and exclusion criteria and how to determine appropriate transfer amounts.

 

Corona Rescue plan:

We acknowledge the efforts made by Kenyan government by the issuance of the additional 10 billion Kenyan shillings to the ministry of social protection for the vulnerable population in form of cash transfer.

Definitely in the coming days disabled Kenyans expect a white smoke at the NSSF building which houses the ministry of social protection in Kenya.

Most disabled Kenyans are highly expectant of the policy regulations and guidelines on the 10 billion promise by the executive order by the president of Kenya.

Unequivocally, with proper feedback mechanisms and regular consultation disabled Kenyans will be able to know if cash transfer policy programmed will meet their policy needs.

In other words, disabled Kenyans will comprehend how  the 10 billion cash transfer injection to the inua jamii will target the current registered severe disabled persons, elderly, orphans and vulnerable children or it will be meant  for targeting additional new  vulnerable individuals due to the effects of  of Corona 2019. Arguably, much of the debate about cash transfer among disabled Kenyans programmes revolves around the issues of targeting. This is because with the current strategy only severe disabled persons are targeted and considered.

https://labour.go.ke/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/MLSP-Strategic-Plan-2018-2022_17.09.2019.pdf

 

 

This will be a great test as different stakeholders and policy makers in the social protection department scratch their heads on the right footing on which to take in the implementation policy framework.

Will the policy makers ensure inclusion of other disabled Kenyans since they are also mostly vulnerable?

We believe the cash transfer will avert the short-term impact of the Corona crisis and attenuate its long-term negative effects on human development outcomes.

Nonetheless, it is one thing to say that Kenya with Inua jamii -like programmes are sheltering the more vulnerable from the worst consequences of the Corona crisis, and another to recommend that Inua jamii programmes be designed and implemented during a crisis Lehmann, C. (2012. Several steps are involved, political will is required, and funds must be committed. The ministry of social protection has a pivotal role to ensure coordination, operation and more resources even from development partners.

We observe, the Cash transfer programme will be effective if it will be implemented under a sustainable social protection strategy. Such a strategy should enable better coordination among programmes, between the national and county government ,and among the different international players in order to avoid duplication of effort and waste of resources.

For instance, Mombasa have already started a SMS service asking those who aren’t in the Cash transfer to register “widows, orphans, persons with disabilities, and persons with pre-existing conditions into the emergency plan

Has Mombasa county link up with the national cash transfer programme?

Data base and registration for the cash transfer:

Due to social distance directive as a preventive measure of spread of Corona. Will the ministry of social protection work on vigorous registration, collection of data and automation of all new persons with disabilities, orphans and the elderly?

Or will the ministry of social protection synchronize the current departments databases of children services, NCPWD and   department of social development under the strategic guidance of the National Social Protection Secretariat programme?

This will enable to identify the unmet needs through geographic, demographic and welfare status.

Furthermore, quite a lot of reports indicate the current enhanced single registry adapted through the social assistance programme has improved efficiency and reduction of bottlenecks experienced when the ministry of social protection had 3 separate registries [development pathways 2020[.

Through this policy integration the ministry has    a clear database and actualize its programmes effectively Bobonis, G. and F. Finan (2019).

Such database can enable the ministry to build an array of indicators on disabled persons, orphans and vulnerable children, elderly socioeconomic conditions. Therefore, this is a powerful tool for mapping the different needs. and they could be used to guide other policies. Like the current need of food, water, soap and hand sanitizers.  Moreover, Registries enhance monitoring of the poorest families’ access to social services and infrastructure in a more calibrated way than household surveys. The latter, though they are nationally representative, are often based on small samples that do not facilitate sound analysis for local-level interventions. This knowledge base allows rapid crisis response when programmes may need to expand in order to cover a larger proportion of those that fall into poverty.

Key considerations for the cash transfer:

We consider that the ministry of social protection will cast tis net wider in order to seek input from people with disability, leading disability experts, organizations of persons with disabilities and advocates

in developing their dedicated cash transfer strategy, and in particular, in its COVID-19 Coordination

secondly, Disabled Kenyans with disability, particularly slum dwellers and rural inhabitants, may be disproportionately affected by the pandemic due to increased risk of

infection, higher number of co‑morbidities and because of underlying health conditions such as chronic diseases and respiratory illnesses. Numerically speaking, most disabled persons in Kenya live in slum areas and rural areas without basic amenities. Some live-in solitude while others have been housed.

Most of the disabled population and other low-income earners live hand to mouth. This is to say, COVID-19 will spread rapidly and is especially dangerous to people living in close proximity to others in closed settings [WHO 2020].

Worse still, Thousands of adults and children

with disabilities in Kenya live in segregated and often overcrowded residential settings where they can face neglect, abuse, gender-based violence, and inadequate health care and lack human Rights.

Of particular concern are women and girls with disabilities.

This affirms that disable Kenyans are survivors in this country [KNHR 2015]

 

Thirdly disabled Kenyans continue to face barriers in accessing health care, including prevention, testing, screening and treatment for COVID-19. Fourthly, disabled Kenyans will be   unable to access regular and vital medications and therapeutic services due to low supplies and restrictions in access. Fifthly, disabled Kenyans may not have access to mental health services at a time when the need for accessible and responsive mental health is heightened. Sixthly,

disabled Kenyans will be unable to easily access essential health supplies to keep themselves safe, such as personal protective equipment, hand sanitiser and sterilising

Equipment.

lastly are worried that discrimination or unconscious bias could impact their access to critical and lifesaving health care during this crisis.

to we hope the measures taken will ensure the needs of all Kenyans with disabilities are included in

the response to the pandemic.

As experts we appreciate and acknowledges the challenges that national and county governments and private sector are facing during this pandemic.

 

We call upon all national and county governments to ensure that, in their responses, they include dedicated disability strategies to protect and support disabled Kenyans.

Long term solutions:

We opine that Kenya is still a developing nation We therefore suggest inclusion of one our BBI recommendations which we presented at the task force in February 7th, 2020 as a long-term solution.

  1. Ministry of social protection to establish a disability employment service department under the national employment authority since the authority is in charge of all Kenyans in need of employment. so that they are able to execute employment needs of persons with disabilities Through this agency real disability mainstreaming will be achieved. If this recommendation will be adapted, we believe rapid change will take place. We opine disabled persons won’t need to be in cash transfer for long since cash transfers are not meant for long term programming.
  2. We hope the ministry of social protection can take advantage of the Corona crises to execute of reasonable accommodation plans in all its organs and offer vital lessons to both public and private sector.

All in all, our policymakers will have to come up with a homegrown resolution for ensuring disabled Kenyans rights are protected. And this will not be easy.

 

 

 

The views expressed here are for the authors and do not represent any agency or organization.

 Mugambi Paul is a public policy, diversity, inclusion and sustainability expert.

Dr Siyat is a  independent  consultant and systemic advocacy service provider.

 

Why Social Isolation is a Greek term to the disabled Kenyans: Author Mugambi Paul

Several studies indicate that in an emergency person who are disabled, aged and who have chronic illnesses are mostly left behind and most at risk [Help age 2012, HI 2019, UN 2020, WHO 2020].

This is because persons without disabilities will be fighting and running away for their fate. As evidenced many Kenyans have started to go back to the rural places.

 

As a public policy scholar and with lived experience of being disabled and advocate for inclusive approaches in both humanitarian and development spheres.

I am concerned on the current and feature effects of Corona on lives of disabled Kenyans and chronically ill people who are currently falling into cracks.

In other words, they are

being hit and particularly hard by the virus outbreak and access to support services seem to be becoming scarce and finally

will be cut as the crisis worsens.

Evidently, in Nairobi and other major towns Panic buying of cereals, groceries, toilet papers, hand sanitizers and other protective equipment, which also disabled and chronic ill people need have suddenly doubled the prices and also have started to be scarce.

I  observe,  Kenyans without disabilities  and who can stockpile are the ones who are probably less at risk because they were able to rush out to the shops, whereas a lot of disabled Kenyans like  me,  elderly, e and persons with   chronic illnesses just can’t get these commodities.

This is coupled with high poverty levels among the disabled Kenyans.

On the other hand, the Cabinet secretary of Health gave a directive prioritizing the elderly and persons with disabilities in the queuing system in the supermarket [daily nation Friday March 2020[

This pronouncement shows that disabled persons have started to be brought in in Corona conversations though much needs to be done in order not to live us behind. If this directive will be followed, we are yet to see.

 

Could the Kenyan supermarket borrow a leaf from Tesco in the United Kingdom or supermarkets in Australia?

In both nations they have reasonable accommodation for ensuring disabled persons, elderly and persons with chronic illnesses are able to shop comfortable and provision of delivery for those with large shopping.

The Corona virus has equalized us all and it has led to the realization that what works for all works for disabled too] UN 2006 UNDP 2017 ILO 2019 Whiteford 2019].

 

Dilemma of social distance: you

 

Social distancing is not an option for disabled Kenyans. The Kenyan government and more so the ministry of health and disability stakeholders need to go back to the drawing board in order to address the needs and priorities of disabled Kenyans so that we can have inclusive corona interventions.

Of course, many Kenyans with out disabilities take things for granted. This is because most will never fit in to our shoes till when they join our disability club.

For instance, Kenyans    with a disability, who rely on care givers and support workers for daily living and sighted guide services including washing and dressing.

I am talking about people with spinal cord injuries, muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, sometimes people with intellectual disability, psychosocial disability, the elderly, Down syndrome,

that might need assistance with showering, with going to the toilet.

Moreover, social stigma in Kenya is still ripe,

Shoppers who ar blind and vision impaired will not get sighted guided assistance in the shopping spree due to the continued pronouncement by Kenyan government that we should be one metre point five away and avoid handshakes.

in case the president issues an executive order of total or partial lock down, I observe the disabled will be worst hit even withing there local surroundings.

Did you know most of the local shopping areas are highly squeezed and have low ventilation?

How will my fellow wheelchair users avoid assistance not being close while many of the wheelchairs in Kenya are manual?

Furthermore, some disabled creep on the floors!

How will they shopwith out contacts?

Most Kenyan roads are inaccessible how will the Blind and vision impaired avoid falling in to ditches and trenches?

Our independence and self estieem by the use of assistive divides is being questioned!

How can this non handshake apply to mobility impaired persons like Blind, Crutch users, wheelchair users?

Does the Cabinet secretary of Health and policy makers know our devices are metallic?

What if the care giver is infected and need to self-isolate?

This will make Disabled persons become at higher risk,

Additionally, the actual time and effort of finding somebody else, finding the right person that’s going to fit, as well

as then training someone up from scratch again, is a huge effort for people with very high support needs who are going to be in that really high-risk category. The ministry of health needs to train its front-line staff on basic disability inclusion tips

 

Why are the disability sector and stakeholders silent as the lack of disability inclusive Corona continues?

Are they contributing to uninterrupted discrimination and injustice to the larger wanjikus with disabilities?

I suppose they are hiding and later after the Corona era is over, they will claim we were left behind!

The Kenyan media should rise to the occasion and speak on behalf of the disabled Kenyans and persons with chronic illnesses.

Contribution by disability sector:

The disability sector, human right bodies and other policy stakeholders have the role to monitor and report the government organs on the said implementation.

This is actually time for disabled experts, disabled persons organizations, human right bodies state organs practising disability mainstreaming should contribute to more inclusive Corona interventions.

What if the Kenyan disabled stakeholders changed tact and start to advocate for now the silent revolution of reasonable accommodation being implemented?

To put it differently why doesn’t the disability sector join the table instead of awaiting to be in the menu?

I opine, Kenya has great public policies on reasonable accommodation now is the right time to,

push for implementation.

let me illustrate

What if the disability sector and stakeholders pushed the national construction authority now to publish and implement real accessibility standards of buildings?

Most likely we shall have makeshift hospitals. Will they be accessible?

Why don’t the disability stakeholders within their budgets adjust and contribute to the ministry of health on inclusive approaches?

For instance, developing Kenyan sign language clip on how to prevent Corona virus then distribute to the mainstream media and social platforms?

Why don’t the disability stakeholders produce material into braille and distribute all over the country through the free matter for the blind service offered by poster corporation as entrenched in the persons with disabilities act 2003?

Does the disability sector know the time is now for implementing the Marrakesh treaty?

Could the global commitment made by Kenya government, private sector and disability stakeholders be revisited in the area of innovation and make non-metallic assistive devices?

 

All in all, this coronavirus comes with a silver lining. At least, it will pep up people to take normal civic sense to a higher status. So that besides coronavirus

we actually end up also fighting other issues like discrimination faced by Kenyans with this will lead to breaking some if not all the barriers that disabled Kenyans face.

 

 

The views expressed here are for the author and do not represent any agency or organization.

 Mugambi Paul is a public policy, diversity, inclusion and sustainability expert.

 

Why the DISABLED Kenyans are pregnant in the Corona era: Author Mugambi Paul

 

Generally speaking, The COVID-19 pandemic occurring in Kenya should be of utmost concern to every citizen. This is because we need to work together around the country in solidarity.

Ofcourse, the risen times are extra-ordinary. This is the times that will redefine Kenyan human spirit.

 Are we going to ensure disability-inclusive, accessible disaster-response?

On my own behalf and the disabled Kenyans

 We acknowledge the great leadership displayed by cabinet secretary Mutahi Kagwe of ministry of health under this difficult circumstance. Moreover, the CS is communicating in to minds and hearts of all citizens. Could this be adapted as the new norm to Kenyan organization culture of governance?

 

On the other hand, the Corona virus seems to have equalized all of us and the realization of the economic inequalities that exist among low income Kenyans

Amongst these is the largest minority “Kenyans with disabilities” of who make up more than 15 % of the population [WHO 2011]. we need to examine corona virus by waring the disability lenses.

On March 20th, 2020 during the daily updates a more disability inclusive approach was adapted.

This affirms that the CS is a great communicator.

though much needs to be done to realize disability Inclusive approaches.

As a  public policy scholar and a  person with lived experience of being blind I  opine that if what the CS health interventions were to be made long term policy execution the Kenyan  government will  overcome many challenges of including persons with disabilities and resolve the  unemployed citizens  mystery.

In other words, our policies must not discriminate. Disabled and low-income people must be included in every policy, every fund, every new law.

This is the real meaning of disability mainstreaming.

 

Background:

 

Kenyans with disabilities’ needs and concerns should be adequately addressed in existing COVID-19 Kenyan relief packages. 

I affirm that Disability impacts every community and occurs at every stage of life. In addition to impacting Kenyans with disabilities more disparately, the virus is also likely to create disability while people recover [WHO 2020].

Fact to consider:

I believe The Corona virus has awaken the public consciousness of what works for the disabled Kenyans can also work for all

Challenges faced by disabled Kenyans:

Unfortunately. Clean water and sanitation facilities aren’t always available or accessible, particularly for Kenyans with

Disabilities and the low-income earners [UNICEF 2017[.

Are the newly 500 water points in Nairobi accessible to all disabled Kenyans?

 Life-saving information often doesn’t reach those who are deaf, blind, using wheelchairs, illiterate, Deafblind or living in remote areas.

I uphold this global health emergency, the ability to read timely information in an accessible format is even more critical than usual. I   believe the more people access and act upon the information that Ministry of health leaders and public officials are

providing, the better we Kenyans can all cope with the rapidly evolving situation.

 

 

 Furthermore, the corona virus puts people with chronic diseases, Kenyans with disabilities, and the elderly most at risk. could the ministry of health issue a statement regarding rationing of care to ensure that when rationing treatment begins, decisions about how medical treatment should be allocated are made without discriminating based on disability?

 

 Worse still, the Kenyan health system is

not prepared. In China it is reported already some disabled persons have died due to starvation and nonattendance.

Information campaigns and medical care must include the needs of Kenyans with disabilities. It is pivotal that Kenyan state as a duty bearer identify and monitor people with

disabilities in their communities. Frontline staff need training on caring for people with disabilities in the crisis.  The ministry of health should also ensure protection of the front-line health workers by provision of the equipment which they need to execute their work safely

masks, gowns, shields, gloves, suits, and other equipment. Therefore, preventing further spreading of COVID-19.

I urge the Kenyan public policy makers and stakeholders to think boldly and broadly in their response to this pandemic and waste no time saving lives and have actionable long-term policies and regulations.

 

Different ILO studies have affirmed with proper reasonable accommodation execution productivity is high and brings diversity. For instance, If the ministry of public service, ministry of labour, federation of Kenya employers, employment authority, ministry of transport, disability experts can work together via video link can craft a reasonable accommodation regulation.

This is to say with flexibility and

creative solutions are more important than ever in this Corona era.

With this regulation, the president with his executive power ascent can save Kenya a great deal.

several studies and additional public health experts have stated that disabled Kenyans are more vulnerable to COVID-19. Beyond the specific conditions or diagnoses that may raise susceptibility to the virus itself, Kenyans with disabilities are particularly vulnerable to the broader social, civil, and economic impacts of the coronavirus pandemic.

Thus life in Kenya will never be the same again.

will this be a turning point for Kenyan Parliament and senate to ensure a inclusive social protection cover for the marginalized?

  Outlined below are a series of expectations that could benefit Kenya in the long run:

  1. Prioritize and Expand Home delivery services. This can be done through acceleration of M-post services since most Kenyans have Mobile phones additionally more private delivery companies can also be incorporated with a particular county. This would reduce the social contacts since most Kenyans go seeking for goods outside there vicinities.
  2. 24 shift working economy: this can be accelerated by both public and private employers thus even reduction of man hour spent on traffic. Moreover, through shift working economy it would increase work productivity. Some best practises can be borrowed from the private sector. Could this be an opportunity for implementing 2030 vision? Additionally, if adopted in Nairobi, Kisumu, Meru and Mombasa can say by bye to the traffic menace. Could the new Nairobi Metropolitan team adapt this?
  3.  

Prioritize access of digitalized documentation: if this was to be adopted most government documents would be gotten easily. For instance, one of the best recently successful is acquiring renewal of tax exemption among the Kenyans with disabilities although now with the advent of Corona Kenya revenue authority and NCPWD needs now more than ever to decentralize the service. This would actually reduce the transport expenses incurred by Kenyans and also save working hours.

  1. Cash transfer uptake: As the coronavirus crisis has caused a significant economic downturn, I believe that it is essential for ministry o of treasury  to authorize an increase in cash transfer programme to the ministry  of social protection in order to reduce the economic shocks among persons with disabilities,  the seniors of Kenyans   and their care givers. Who are already vulnerable and not covered with the current cash transfer programme.

This move will enable government of Kenya to reduce vulnerability levels.

5 food access:

Regular access to healthy food is key to maintaining strong immune systems. I   encourage the Kenyan government to expand access to food distribution during this period especially to chronic ill persons, the low-income earners, disabled Kenyans, the slum areas and vulnerable populations.

Regrettably, many Kenyan families even before corona era were living under distress for lack of one meal a day.

 Sadly, many Kenyans ability to keep and maintain employment will be impacted by both the business and transit closures.

If short term measures are not taken this might lead to civil strife and increase of psychosocial disabilities among Kenyans.

6.Access to transport: the Kenyan government can support the public transport sector by having reduction of oil prices thus preventing Kenyans from paying extra charges.

Additionally, the government owned busses offer the services to support the private owned public transport services with the new half full caring capacity policy implementation. Where are the NYS busses?

 I observe there has been increased discipline in the Matatu industry by the reduction of congestion by the ministry of Health directive.

Environmentally speaking, drastic air pollution has reduced.

 

How I wish it was a daily Norm in the public transport.

Could the government offer tax wavers for public transport to acquire disability inclusive buses?

 

7. Implementation of accessibility standards.

The national construction authority and disability stakeholders should rally behind and ensure when makeshift hospitals,

isolation facilities and construction of new hospitals are fully accessible and equipped with accessible beds.

Therefore, Duty bearers should ensure disability civil rights protections are fully protected since rights   are not negotiable. I believe time is ripe to enforce and implement article 27, 54 of the constitution and persons with disability act 2003 for protecting rights of disabled Kenyans.

  1. inclusive economic stimulus: Kenyans with disabilities must be included in the economic relief proposals now under consideration by the private sector and Kenyan government. Given that COVID-19 poses unique risks for Kenyans with disabilities and other low-income earners that may make it more difficult for those who are not in any form of employment. This will enable people with disabilities and low-income earners to be able to survive during the current crisis. The economic stimulus should be easily and equitably available for all. Of particular concern are men, women, girls and boys with disabilities.
  2. All of these recommendations are critical to addressing the spread of COVID-19 and addressing our nation’s public health more broadly and ensuring we meet the SDGS by not living any one behind.

As the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King said, “We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly.” The fragile state of this “network of mutuality” has become all too apparent during the coronavirus outbreak. Though we may be vulnerable, we are not dispensable. In fact, disabled Kenyans have critical experience to share in adapting to challenging and constantly changing situations affecting our health, employment, education, housing, and families–experience that all fellow Kenyans will need in the days and weeks ahead. We are grateful for the urgency with which the Ministry of Health is moving to make sure that the Kenyan people never feel the worst of this pandemic, and am seeking  only to protect Kenyan disability  community from the unintended but all too foreseeable impacts of discrimination.

especially during all phases of disaster preparation, response, recovery, and mitigation.

 

 

The views expressed here are for the author and do not represent any agency or organization.

 Mugambi Paul is a public policy, diversity, inclusion and sustainability expert

the catastrophe of being Blind and Disabled in the Corona era “Lessons for Policy makers!” Author Mugambi Paul.

Kenyans living with disability are a vulnerable group; a larger proportion are older, and with underlying health conditions. Almost half of all people with disability
are aged 65 and above. And only 24% of adults with disability experience very good or excellent health, compared with 65% of without disability [world report 2011].
Apparently in Kenya, Disability is generally very misunderstood and very unacknowledged, even though 15 % of disabled Kenyans make up the population.
The world is paying close attention to the outbreak of novel coronavirus, following its emergence in December 2019 in Wuhan, China but the voice of disabled Kenyans is still inadequate.
This is because of lack of political influence, inadequate social services and lack of opportunities to adapt.
This indicates The rest of 85 % of Kenya’s population is engaged.
Over the last six years, the health sector in Kenya has exhibited significant developments, including the introduction of the Linda Mama (free maternity) initiative, the Beyond Zero campaign, efforts to revamp the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF), as well as a multi-million dollar Medical Equipment Leasing scheme aimed at bringing advanced medical equipment closer to citizens across the 47 counties and in key referral facilities.
The inclusion of health in the president’s legacy priorities (Big Four Agenda) underlined this stated commitment to improving healthcare.
This obviously follows the Constitutional requirement, Kenya Health Act 2014 and Kenya Health Policy 2014-30. In addition, Kenya has ascribed to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including SDG No 3, that commits governments to provide quality healthcare for all.
Are these Kenyan Health regulation disability inclusive?
Data evidence:
According to latest data over 132,000 cases of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been reported and 4,900 people have died. The virus has reached 123 countries [WHO 2020[.
How does the virus spread?

Epidemiological evidence shows that 2019 nCoV can be transmitted from one individual to another. During previous outbreaks due to other coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV), human to human transmission most commonly occurred through droplets, personal contact, and contaminated objects (fomites). The modes of transmission of 2019 nCoV are likely to be similar.
The precise zoonotic (animal) origin of the 2019 nCoV is still uncertain. The virus has been identified in environmental samples from a live animal market in Wuhan, and some human cases have been epidemiologically linked to this market. Other coronavirus, such as SARS and MERS, are also zoonotic, and can be transmitted from animals (civet cats and dromedary camels, respectively) to humans.
On the other hand, With the outbreak of a novel coronavirus declared a pandemic by the World Health Organisation, people worldwide are working to address it.
According to the WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said in a terse statement that this is the first time the world is battling a pandemic against a coronavirus disease.
This has seen nations executing travel bans to sport shutdowns. Meanwhile other countries like Italy, Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and rwanda have locked out their countries.
coronavirus is changing life as we know it. It’s tough to know who to trust – that’s why it’s vital to receive facts.
Disabled Kenyans are at higher risk due to the multifaceted related factors in addition of having a disability. WHO is warning people across the world to avoid contact?
But populations in less developed countries like Kenya are wondering how that is possible when they still need to go to search for food, work, purchase items, go to church or mosque or connect with family and friends.
Key factors:
Rise of stigma and discrimination.
Already in existence it will be Upsurge by the lack of shaking hands as announced by the ministry of health.
Of course, Many Blind and disabled persons require support when crossing the busy Thika superhighway or the Westland routes.
For instance, Crutch and white cane users tend to touch metal rails, touching escalator handrails, using traffic light buttons, reaching for train door opening buttons and holding safely
on to handrails on public buses and Matatus while crossing, some may require to be held while crossing.
how can we avoid handshake?
I observe many disabled Kenyans are anxious. This is because we can control what we touch, but we can’t control what
other people have touched.
Will the ministries of health or ministry of transport provide qualified volunteers?
Or will the ministry of health or transport provide protective products like hand sanitizers to the public transport providers?
I observe, With the Corona in place discrimination and stigma will rise in totality since citizens with out disabilities will be having social distance thus disabled Kenyans might stop seeking services or refuse to travel.
Coupled with poverty levels many disabled Kenyans will not afford the buying of the required protective gears like hand sanitizers.

Second factor is Isolation:
Several studies show disabled persons have lived in isolation for long and this will be a lesson for persons without disabilities.
majority disabled Kenyans are at increased risk of serious or fatal complications from COVID-19 (coronavirus). In an active community outbreak, the
safest option may be to self-isolate at home, perhaps for weeks or longer. In order to prepare for this possibility, I believe its high time the Kenyan ministry of health recommends
that people at high risk stock up on necessities, including maintenance prescription medication.
Worst still, many disabled Kenyans can’t take this advice because m95 % of the disabled do not have insurance.
This is a great chance of disability stakeholders to network with the national hospital insurance fund to probably register all disabled persons visiting the health service providers.
Moreover, the lack of insurance as a social protection measure has left many disabled Kenyans to be more vulnerable.
Solution for NHIF:
I would suggest NHIF recognizes and automates its system to include the disability card issued by NCPWD.
Absolutely this would increase the uptake of insurance among disabled Kenyans.
Will the Kenyan legislature enact an insurance regulation of eliminating the wait time for employment insurance payments?
Third factor is Logistics:
Unfortunately, accessing the pharmacy can be risky for some disabled Kenyans and people with chronic illnesses and even pregnant women.
. Some people with disabilities may also face logistical challenges in getting to the pharmacy if support services become disrupted
due to sudden rise of isolations and being left behind.

Moreover, the Kenyan pharmacy are yet to embrace the mailing services. This could have been a solution instead of putting all at risk.
Will the delivery companies in Kenya grab the opportunity?
The ministry of health has announced measures of
Of ensuring localized outbreaks and social distancing measures are observed.
Absolutely, in some countries already there is massive disruption of supply chains. What can Kenyans with disabilities learn?
Disabled Kenyans and persons with chronic illnesses can’t stake their lives on the assumption that the availability of medications will remain stable in the coming weeks and
months. They need to be able to stock up now.

I opine that Disrupting treatment always endangers patients, but even more so in a pandemic.
The need for inpatient treatment will likely exceed capacity in many communities. this is because Kenya and other developing countries we still have weak health systems and inadequate health infrastructure. COVID-19 is expected to heavily tax the resources of the Kenyan health care system.
Will Kenya now revisit the Abuja declaration on Health Budgeting?
Further Than, outpatient clinics are likely to have a high number of patients
seeking treatment for COVID-19 symptoms, making avoidable visits risky for those more vulnerable to complications. Additionally, patients whose chronic
conditions are destabilized are in danger of becoming more severely ill if they are infected with COVID-19.
Water access:
In Kenya water access is a major challenge for all. Will the Kenya government break the cartels in the water industry to ensure water is readily available?
In Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu and other major towns its proven fact that many households go for several months without accessing running taps and forced to buy. According to UNICEF 40 per cent of the world’s population, or 3 billion people, do not have a handwashing facility with water and soap at home. Nearly three quarters of
the people in least developed countries lack basic handwashing facilities at home. Further, 47 per cent of schools lacked a handwashing facility with water and soap affecting 900 million school-age children. Over one third of schools worldwide
and half of schools in the least developed countries like Kenya have no place for children to wash their hands at all.
Forth factor nonvisual access:
Kenyans who are Blind or visually impaired do not have equal access to quantitative information including charts, graphs, and maps. For example, many of
us simply cannot perceive the data visualizations and dashboards that are regularly published by mainstream news organizations. As a result, we often have
limited or non-existent access to critical data, including information we aneed to make informed decisions pertaining to our work, finances and health. As
charts depicting the spread of Coronavirus and modelling how to flatten the curve are seen and discussed worldwide with Blind and visually impaired people
largely excluded from the conversation, we are starkly reminded that nonvisual access to data is vital to our equality and well-being.
The charts and graphics popularly known as “data visualizations” can – and should – be represented in formats that Blind and visually impaired Kenyans can
use.
Effects of COVID-19 on employment:
Centrally, my thoughts seem to be telling me a silent reasonable accommodation revolution in workplaces is being executed globally by Covid-19
as envisaged in the UNCRPD.
For instance, some tech companies Multinational like apple and google are demanding their employee to work at home. According to ILO 2017 with proper reasonable accommodations companies can benefit allot
This is to say that allowing employees to work remotely encourages more equality in the workforce by allowing more people with chronic illness and disabilities to participate and some studies show employees even report that they perform better in remote arrangements.
.
I believe working at home will assuaged persons with chronic illnesses and also individuals’ who are having low immunity.
Will the disability policy makers and employment gurus stakeholders rise to the occasion and present a reasonable accommodation legislation?
Now the people without disabilities we see your ableism tendencies being put in the right place
This shows implementation of disability related rights is possible. Should public and private sector await a catastrophe to implement disability laws?
It’s a fact that in Kenya after the road tragedy in 2002 by the Third president who was sworn on a wheelchair made the signing of the persons with disabilities act 2003.
Will public and private sectors reduce demand for office spaces?
Will public and private sectors in developing nations like Kenya adopt 24 hour economy by having there staff to work on shifts in order to avoid social contact?
Will companies in developing countries stop the analogue economy and switch to digitalization?
What does this mean to both employed and unemployed disabled?
What does COVID-19 mean to the almost 70 % of informal employment in Kenya who do not use digital devices?
All in all, we need disabled persons organizations to be engaged in advocacy on protecting people with disabilities from COVID-19 in both national and county levels.
This is by way of ensuring we have inclusive emergency plans and actions.

The views expressed here are for the author and do not represent any agency or organization.
Mugambi Paul is a public policy, diversity, inclusion and sustainability expert.

Will the “Disabled” Kenyans cry foul after being left in Coronavirus conversations? Author Mugambi Paul

In order not to live the disabled Kenyans who are the largest minority, who make up 15 % of the population.
I opine, disabled Kenyans they deserve not to be left behind.
There is an urgent need for Ministry of health in Kenya to address the rights and needs of disabled person throughout all COVID-19 planning and response.
In other words, for maximum community results in the recent updates from the national and county governments there is the need to close the glaring gap of inclusivity.

Available facts:
Children and adults with disabilities and older adults are 2-4 times more likely to be injured or die in a disaster due to a lack of planning, accessibility, and accommodation. Most people with disabilities are not inherently at a greater risk for contracting COVID-19, despite misconception that all people with disabilities have acute medical problems.
Kenyan government Actions taken now can make a big difference in COVID-19 outcomes
Additionally, the disability sector from both the state and non state actors need to raise the voice not just to remain mum.
Are disabled persons represented at the national emergency committee established by the president?
Are the needs of the disabled catered for in the contingency plans?

Lessons learnt:
One of the greatest lessons in the fight of HIV aids in Kenya is that the disabled persons were not involved nor consulted in the plans strategies for combating the menace.
It took few disability stakeholders to get the national aids control council to ensure inclusivity is realized.
When shall the disabled stakeholders learn not to be left behind?
Should the disability society be involved after the rest of the population? we
Moreover, USAID was very critical in supporting disabled stakeholders in achieving active disability engagements.
Worst still, many disabled persons weren’t aware of how to prevent themselves from the HIV AIDS infection. Many disabled Kenyans died, and many being taken advantage of by the society perceptions and behaviours [HI 2007]
This is because of the late response to the needs of disabled persons.
Several studies showed the greater involved of disabled Kenyans in awareness, contributed to reduction of stigma and discrimination associated with disability and HIV aids.
It also ensured representation in National aids committees, and prevention promoted reduction of spread of the disease. [NACC 2008, Liverpool 2007 HI 2007[.

Role of the disability sector:
Needless to say, disability stakeholders can play a crucial role by facilitating support to the ministry of health on inclusive strategies which will address the needs of the disabled Kenyans.

Legal Obligations and Training
On the other hand, Public and private agencies that provide services to persons with disabilities must be aware of their legal obligations and must train their employees appropriately. When public and private agencies and businesses are unclear about their legal responsibilities, there are no limitations in providing greater than minimum levels of support and services to persons with disabilities. Lack of understanding is NEVER an acceptable reason for failing to meet legal obligations, including throughout emergency circumstances.
Furthermore, the ministry of health has a has a legal obligation to provide equal access to public health emergency services to disabled Kenyans, including throughout a pandemic since our president issued an executive order
Coupled with the support one of the pillars of the big 4 agenda, of Kenyan 2010 constitution on right to access to health services and international conventions.

Needs of disabled Kenyans:

I observe disabled Kenyans require the same resources and assistance that all citizens deserve.
in other words, adequate information and instructions, social and medical services, and protection from infection by those who might contracted the virus. However, some disabled Kenyans may have needs that warrant specific reasonable accommodation by the public and private sectors that may not be necessary for Kenyans without disabilities. This is not much to ask since the current strategies by both national and county governments have not addressed the reasonable accommodations.

For instance, Communications Authority has approved sending of bulk information messages on coronavirus by the Ministry of Health to all subscribers of local mobile phone operators.
I beg to ask:
Are persons with intellectual impairment, Deaf, Blind, psychosocial disabilities able to consume this information?
1. Can the government provide alternative formats of communication in awareness raising? Disabled Kenyans need to be informed of why Ministry of health believe that certain actions are warranted, to be given an opportunity to ask questions and receive answers in an accessible format, and to be afforded the opportunity to object and propose alternative solutions.
2. Another example, the Bagathi hospital has been designated to be the official self-quarantine place.
Has it met accessibility standards?
Are the beds easily accessible and user friendly to Kenyans with mobility impairments?
Moreover, in some places, the distribution of protective equipment, food, and medical supplies might be warranted. If Point of Distribution locations are established, government and private stakeholders must address how these supplies and equipment will be distributed and accessed by disabled Kenyans, elderly and others who have difficulties in movement and lack means of travel. Disabled Kenyans have the right to receive services in the most integrated setting appropriate to their needs.
All in all, the existing legal protections of disabled Kenyans remain in effect under all circumstances. These protections are not subject to waivers or exceptions, even during public health emergencies or declared pandemics.
I Hope there will be no contrition on this journey of ensuring disabled become part of the solutions.

The views expressed here are for the author and do not represent any agency or organization.
Mugambi Paul is a public policy, diversity, inclusion and sustainability expert.

The Outrage of the missing data of women with disabilities in Kenya “where are you my sisters?” Author Mugambi Paul.

The upcoming international women day’s gives scholars, practitioners and other public policy stakeholders to ask ourselves the pertinent question.
Has Kenya done well in advancing the rights of women and girls with disabilities?
Has Kenya broken the barriers of inclusion of women with disabilities?
Has the disability space been accommodative of women with disabilities?

As a public scholar I join in the reflection of the Kenyan disability public space.
Absolutely not, this is one of the debates which the stakeholders in the disability sector need to engage.
Are women with disabilities actively engaged?
I live that to other analysts. As a matter of principle, I say representation matters.
On the other hand, I thank the president of Kenya having appointed Madam MUkhobe at the highest decision-making organ in the country since 2013.
Where is the Data and statistics of the disabled?
Numbers don’t lie.
Globally disabled persons are at 15 %.
3.8 of the are persons with moderate to severe impairment.
5.1 % of the children with disabilities are below the age of 14.
0.7 % have severe functional impairment.
19 % are women with disabilities world report 2011.
To put matters into perspective, In the latest 2020 national council of population report has no data of women or girls with disabilities.
Does this mean that women and girls with disabilities do not get pregnant?
Are women and girls with disabilities not sexually active?
Different media channels on a weekly basis in Kenya have been reporting of how women and girls with disabilities have been experiencing gender-based violence in the hands of family members or even under the institutions mint to support them.
I believe This is another big blow to disabled persons in Kenya after the release of Kenya bureau of statistics 2019 census report. Which in essence reduced the data of disabled Kenyans.

Will disability sector continue with the same old ways of addressing this challenge?
Will the disability sector move out of board rooms and actualize the dreams of girls and women with disabilities?
Does the national council of population have a disability mainstreaming committee?
The lack of disability desegregated data will obviously affect planning and service delivery for girls, boys, men and women with disabilities.
In other words, the national council of population affirms that women and girls with disabilities have never experienced gender-based violence nor gotten pregnant.
Let me remind the disability stakeholders women with disabilities are more likely to experience sexual violence than women without disabilities.
This is also coupled with disabled Kenyans who face barriers to accessing services in both public and private sectors.
Most disability policy stakeholders know the barriers that disabled Kenyans face but have refused to actualize them.
Disabled Kenyans persons have been left chanting in the social media as a tool of advocacy.
Am not surprised to note in March 4th, 2020 a person with physical impairment was begging for a wheelchair on in one of the social media platforms.
Which system works for disabled Kenyans?
Will the Big four agenda be realized for disabled persons?
When will Kenya declare begging an economic enterprise for disabled persons since the constitution provisions aren’t working for disabled Kenyans?
several studies show Women and girls living with disabilities often face additional marginalization in their experiences of abuse as well as specific barriers to accessing services, due to:
• economic and/or physical dependence on the abuser, which challenges efforts to escape (particularly within family and sometimes institutional set ups. Several research in Kenya have indicated women with disabilities have suffered from forms of abuse specific to women living with disabilities (e.g. withholding of right medications, like the case of national children council exposed by NTV Kenya in 2019.
research done by women with disabilities organizations in Kenya show denial of assistive devices is also rampant.
Additionally, there is also refusal to provide personal care), which are less documented and may not be explicit within legal definitions of abuse.
For instance, Menstrual Health in Kenya: Landscape Analysis published in May 2016 never showed the extent to which women and girls with disabilities can’t access sanitary pads.
As Well lack of or limitations in physical accessibility of venues for women with disabilities still remains one of the barriers.
Furthermore, perceptions by service providers like health continue to plague the system in place.
This is because many believe that they cannot provide services for women with disabilities given their resource or capacity limitations. Mainstream women organizations and women service providers have not entrenched any inclusive measures of engaging or consulting women with disabilities.
In other words, lack of programming informed by and implemented in consultation with Kenyan women with disabilities or misinterpretation of their needs in escaping and overcoming the abuse they have experienced. Thus, having gaps in collaboration between disability organizations and service providers supporting survivors, as well as assumptions by each group that survivors are served by the other. A study by Kenya national human rights commission in 2015 indicated low sensitivity among law enforcement personnel or other service providers, who may not inquire about abuse by caretakers, or disregard reports from women with visual, speech/communication or motor coordination disabilities (e.g. cerebral palsy), assuming they are intoxicated or are not serious in their claims. The KAIH who have been working closely in the legal apparatus affirm that biases among judicial personnel and courts is evidently seen.
For instance, cases of provision of preferential treatment to the abuser in child custody due to the victim’s disability (

What can disability sector and stakeholders do to change the narrative?
Develop Strategies and tools to prevent violence against women with disability. E.g. have inclusive training tools on gender violence.
Ensure collection of data collected is gender, age and disability desegregated in reporting and monitoring
Share best practices of gender and disability equitable practice
develop inclusive Referral system and services which can assist in responding to women with disability who experience violence
have more role models among women with disabilities.
Collaborative initiatives with the mainstream women organizations
list end support men with and without disabilities who are supporting reduction of gender-based violence initiatives.
Conduct inclusive training to service providers in both health and law enforcing agencies.
Ensure engagement and meanful consultation with women and girls with disabilities from rural and urban set up.
This will actualize the slogan not living any one behind as the sustainable development goals advocate.
global commitments 2018.

In conclusion:
The truth of the matter is Kenya is known to have progressive disability
related laws and policies but poor implementation is the order of the day.
As a result the dire state of affairs of women with disabilities is not due to lack of new ideas. The biggest problem is lack of capacity to take up and implement the new ideas in existing policy documents.

The views expressed here are for the author and do not represent any agency or organization.
Mugambi Paul is a public policy, diversity, inclusion and sustainability expert.

Disabled Kenyans outcry of the elusive accessible housing plans: Author Mugambi Paul

According to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities it recognizes the right of persons with disabilities to adequate housing and their right to social protection (article 28). The Convention was adopted in 2006 and ratified by 180 countries, where Kenya is one of the earliest countries to do so.
more importantly in 2017 Kenya adapted the big 4 agenda where affordable housing is one of the key issue.

Where are we:
Arguably, there have been back and forth debates on how the public will be entitled to the affordable housing schemes in Kenya.
There has no been any agreeable way between the 3 arms of government and the public at large.
The lack of public participation in the affordable housing seam to have reached rock bottom.
This is coupled with lack of clear policy frameworks which could ultimately have guided the process.
In Jamuhuri 2019 the president of Kenya seem to have soften the stand on involuntary housing contribution. This has led to treasury in 2020 February budget policy estimates to the Parliament to say that it will allocated 0 budget for housing plan.
Although the private sector is investing on the housing agenda.

What’s happening at the National level?

In 2015, the UN Member States adopted the Sustainable Development Goals which call for access for all to affordable housing and implementation of appropriate social protections systems for all, including persons with disabilities (Goals 11 and 1).
But Kenyans with disabilities remain largely invisible in the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of these commitments. Notably, Lack of reliable and timely data, evidence and research on persons with disabilities continue to pose challenges to the inclusion of persons with disabilities and the full implementation of Sustainable Development Goals, including Goals 1 and 11.
This is affirmed by the latest Kenya bureau of statistics 2020 where disabled numbers dwindled.
Lessons for policy makers in the disability sector:
Mobilization of expertise on disability inclusion in housing agenda needs to be considered.
Disabled persons organizations need to participate in public participation forums to ensure their issues are hard by the ministry of housing and transport.
The disability sector policy makers need to resource and facilitate disabled Kenyans to this process of ensuring inclusive measures are observed.
The disability sector should demand 15 % of the housing units being constructed to be accessible and owned by disabled Kenyans.
The UN report 2018 shows that despite the progress made in recent years, persons with disabilities continue to face numerous barriers to access affordable and adequate housing and a disproportionate number of persons with disabilities are homeless. They face many barriers that prevent them from enjoying their right to adequate housing, including higher levels poverty, lack of access to employment, discrimination and lack of support for independent living.
On the other hand, On 19th February 2020 the gavel fell on the
58th session of the UN Commission for Social Development,
which agreed the text of the historical first United Nations resolution on homelessness. A serious violation of human dignity, homelessness has become
a global problem. It is affecting people of all ages from all walks of life, in both developed and developing countries.
Relevance of data:
Globally, 1.6 billion people worldwide live in inadequate housing conditions, with about 15 million forcefully evicted every year, according to UN-Habitat,
which has noted an alarming rise in homelessness in the last 10 years. Young people are the age group with the highest risk of becoming homeless.

The UN Commission’s resolution recognizes that people are often pushed into homelessness by a range of diverse social and economic drivers.

“It could happen to anyone. It’s not always drugs, alcohol. It’s not always something external. Life happens. And life can happen to a whole lot of us.
It did during the great financial crisis, and it could very well happen again”, said Chris Gardner, who had described his experience of homelessness in
his bestselling book, “The Pursuit of Happiness”.

“We, as a great human society, we are diminished, we lose the gift of their creativity, the gift of their curiosity, the gift of their potential when it
is marooned by all downstream consequences of homelessness”, said Mary McAleese, Former President of Ireland.

“I will never forget my first experience with homelessness. I, unfortunately, was born into a family plagued by a chain of events which included domestic
violence”, added Chris Gardner. “My one regret about being here today is that the two most important people in the world to me couldn’t be here today‐‐‐I’m
referring to my granddaughter and my goddaughter. One of them says that she wants to become the President of the United States and the other one says
that she wants to become an astronaut and go to the moon. And you know what I say to both of them every day? Let’s go!!! THAT’S THE POWER of ONE!”

In its resolution of the UN Commission for Social Development calls for a response by all sectors within Governments and societies. The Commission recommended
the resolution for adoption by the UN Economic and Social Council later this year.

The Commission also celebrated the
25th anniversary of the World Summit for Social Development
and its Copenhagen Declaration. Stakeholders and experts from all over the world expressed strong support for the work of the Commission, noting that
the outcome of the Copenhagen Summit remains relevant today and continues to guide social development in their countries.
Kenya ministry of social protection was recognized on this event.
All in all with the current trends in Kenya it remains a pipe dream for having accessible housing in place.
This is because there are no adequate measure or regulation in place to ensure real inclusion is achieved in housing agenda.
What remains is the low confused undertones among the Kenyan disability community without knowing which direction to take!

The views expressed here are for the author and do not represent any agency or organization.
Mugambi Paul is a public policy, diversity, inclusion and sustainability expert.

Should the disabled Kenyans stop be being in Automobile state? Author Mugambi Paul

Majority of Kenyans still see disabled persons as objects of pity. I believe with a collective paradigm shift of mindset we can do it [UNDP 2018]. With the new decade we can stand up and say no to discrimination and harassment of disabled persons. [UN enable 2019]
needless to say, as a totally blind person myself, I am all too familiar with such dehumanizing treatment. Often disabled individuals are treated differently, simply because we look, act, move or communicate differently. But should our differences, stemming from disabilities that we did not choose, be an excuse or justification for others to treat us as lesser individuals?
Unfortunately, many of us, the disabled Africans keep silent as this evil is perpetuated.
This is done by either family members, friends, employers and even in the public spaces.
In liberal democracies, citizens have the right to equal treatment under the law, which means that governments should not differentiate among people without good reason to do so. This is known as the principle of non-discrimination.
That’s because true equality requires a government to actually dismantle structures that perpetuate group disadvantage, either by providing preferential treatment or special protection to those on the wrong side of invisible barriers.
During my tenure as a student leader at Kenyatta university we pushed the policy agenda for affirmative action in university admissions for students with disabilities.
although we din’t get to enjoy the fruits of our advocacy.
Am grateful that the future generation of students with disabilities from 2010 din’t have to pay the price. there were great lessons.
Search as not everyone understand the journey for social justice.
Secondly as a leader you have to sacrifice for the people you lead.
camping at Professor Jude Ong’ong’a and professor Katana DVC academics and registrar academics respectively, was the order of the day.
This was to ensure no disabled person misses the exam card.
With this not withstanding the employers in both public and private sectors in Kenya need to borrow a leaf.
None of these preferential treatment policies are a magic solution for ending group discrimination and segregation, but without affirmative action policy the number of students with disabilities in both public and private universities would be far less than they are today.

On the other hand, In Kenya we have lots of disability awareness campaigns which have highly been of great improvement in the area of advocacy.
In other words, at list the mainstreaming media and social media in Kenya has highly contributed to the improved changes not like when we were starting fighting for disability space.
Additionally, we used to be chased like wild dogs when we approached media gates and other public spaces as we sort for services.
It seemed all along Blind persons were associated with begging thus the maltreatment.
Thanks to the UNCRPD the tide has really changed though we still have a long way to realize the dreams of our forefathers like EDDY Robert of the famous quote “Disability is a club.”
The reality check on Kenya is that we have adopted a more contemporary position on disabilities with accompanying policies and legislation, the general population remains rooted in the medical/charity model of disability.
I can site many examples of how Kenyans see the disabled as objects of pity who require sympathy, help or fixing. These interactions dehumanize and segregate PWDs. When one lives solely in a world of handouts and tokenistic gestures of goodwill promoted by corporate social responsibility initiatives, no dignity is earned, nor will any respect be gained.
For instance,
as a Blind artist and also a professional diversity and inclusion expert many a times people want to pay less for my works in comparison with non-disabled persons [Riayan 2019].
Sometimes with out blinking they demand to be offered service for free.
You really wonder if a blind artist and consultant uses free energy and free provision of his or her needs in his or her life.
Another example is the corporate who allege to organize support for assistive devices or marathons. Do these events actually sustain the disabled persons? Do the activities benefit a few individuals with disabilities and then sing Hosana?
I vividly remember how a vision impaired was almost being lynched at a Muhindi shop in town. This incident happens when he was checking the prices of bags and shoes.
The owner thought the vision impaired individual was a thief.
As long as the disabled are viewed as lesser or alien, dehumanizing incidents like the one we experienced at the media gates, will continue to be a common occurrence. Many incidences of disability-related harassment and discrimination have gone, and will continue to go, unchallenged. Despite protective legislation, sadly, little can be done to address the dignity that has been willfully trampled upon.
As a public policy scholar, this leaves me to conclude that decency and respect for a fellow human being cannot be regulated through legislation alone.
I recognize and appreciate that my views on such matters are not
widely shared by everyone in disability movement nor in our society. I acknowledge
that there are many traditions in our society which reflect different
experiences and perspectives than my own. All the same, I am proud to be
guided by a strong code of conduct that embraces diversity with respect for
divergent differences of opinion, beliefs, identities, and other
characteristics. What I stand for demonstrates that as a blind person am from a diverse cross section of society.
As a global citizen who happens to be blind, I have had the privilege of travelling to many different countries. Of the many that I have visited, Australia and Israel stood out the most. Perhaps due to their experiences and effective implementation of the disability policies.
. In my many visits, I have yet to be discriminated against. I have been treated not only with dignity but have always been offered help respectfully
when needed.

The views expressed here are for the author and do not represent any agency or organization.
Mugambi Paul is a public policy, diversity, inclusion and sustainability expert.

Why the disabled Kenyans should stop word romancing in quest for inclusivity. Author Mugambi Paul

Image

Over the past few months, Kenya social media sites within the disability sector has been filled with romantic words of how we us disabled persons should be defined.
Many of the social media users argued for or against the statement “persons living with disability”
Putting my scholarly lenses, I will fall into the trap of using legal instrument.
This is evidently best settled by the clear definition which is quite elaborate in the UNCRPD.
It begs the question whether I live with my impairment or not. Does this really matter?
The pertinent response should be if as and individual or group we are receiving efficient, timely service delivery.
This matter of romantic wording should stop instantly and let focus the energies towards demanding for more improved service delivery in both public and private sectors.
As a matter of fact, the disabled in Kenya are too euphemistic and this clearly waters down the advocacy agenda.
As a public scholar and also a consumer of disability services have put the shoes and thus found to jot my reflections.
This is well informed by the virtue of Some discriminatory experiences
I have encountered within the Kenyan public and private service provision.
I observe there are allot of grey areas we need to focus.
For instance, accessible communication and information, transport provision for disabled persons, inclusive education, demand for employment opportunism etc.
I opine that the Kenyan disability sector has lost its way by being caught
up in politics and the self-interest of higher-ups. As [Peter 2019] affirms the disability sector can redeem itself.
Several reforms need to take place in order to assure and uphold the rightful place and a just society for the disabled in Kenya.
There is a plausible and workable solution
within reach to overcome many of the failures and inefficiencies of disability service provision, and these solutions should be grasped with two hands so that we
can turn this around.
For example, if a follow up response for last year’s open letter on my blog would have changed the narrative.

“Open letter to the Newly NCPWD chair” Mugambi Paul


to put it differently, disabled persons have solutions to the obstacles they face on a daily basis.
“we are the drivers of our destiny”
More importantly, Kenya made several global commitments in 2018.
This has seen several initiatives being pursued by government, international non-governmental organizations, private business sectors and disabled persons organizations.
According to my web-based research most entities in Kenya performed well in meeting their obligations but is this impact felt on the ground?
needless to say, the disabled persons in Kenya have a responsibility of accountability by asking.
Are these global commitments being implemented to achieve the said target population?
Are the global commitments made by Kenya in line with the Complies with its Obligations Under the CRPD?
Are tangible outcomes being experienced by disabled persons at the grassroots?
Success story
Moreover, beyond individual organizations’ progress against their commitments, there is evidence by ministry of labor in Kenya that Global disability commitments has had a wider impact in raising awareness, and increasing
prioritization, in relation to disability inclusion. For sure, disability inclusion as key to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.
some of the ministry of labor success story include:
Launch of the National Action Plan on the implementation of the Global Disability Summit Commitments 2018
Development and an advocacy toolkit that will be used to strengthen dignity and respect for all.
Lastly, Establishment and launch of the Inter Agency Coordinating Committee to coordinate and monitor the implementation of the National Action Plan on the
implementation of the Global Disability Summit Commitments 2018. On the other hand, much needs to be done
by the consortiums in the non-governmental organizations.
most of them are still grappling with teething issues and set ups.
We hope in 2020 more research and global commitments outcomes will be felt on the ground.

According to June 2019 Kenya investment report and state social enterprise reports they do not have any reference to inclusivity aspect of disabled persons.
The report just mentions the term disability only in the reference of the social protection aspect of the Uwezo program.
This literally shows Kenya still has a long way towards getting proper participation of persons with disabilities and inclusive reporting.
All in all, the disabled a person and their organizations need to enhance the collaborative accountability mechanisms which will aid towards the realization of achieving the global commitments.
The views expressed here are for the author and do not represent any agency or organization.
Mugambi Paul is a public policy, diversity, inclusion and sustainability expert.

The future of poverty policy Five years of momentum must not go to waste Guest Author SHARON BESSELL

New ways of measuring and tackling poverty are making crucial progress, but the scale of the problem is large, and many challenges and negative trends remain. Addressing these will be crucial to ending poverty, Sharon Bessell writes.

In 2015, world leaders agreed to the Sustainable Development Goals. Goal 1 is to end poverty in all its forms everywhere. This marked a significant shift in global policy, refocusing poverty alleviation strategies from income alone to a far broader set of issues.

So how far have things come in the past five years as policymakers, service deliverers, and activists grapple with the challenge of ending poverty in all its forms everywhere? Three trends are worth considering as the new decade dawns.

First, in terms of global priorities, Goal 1 signals a welcome shift. There is no doubt that increasing incomes among the poor is critically important, and must remain a priority – both globally and within countries.

Equally, it is important to recognise that low income is not the only characteristic of poverty. The structural barriers that prevent individuals and social groups from moving out of poverty reflect deep-seated inequality and discrimination that are unlikely to be dismantled by a marginal increase in incomes.

Similarly, poor quality of health care, education, and other essential services available to many are the product of insufficient and unequal public spending and investment. Individuals need very large increases in their income to be able to buy higher quality services – and such purchases may never be possible for those who are excluded due to discrimination and stigma.

More on this:Mapping deprivation across lives
As the global definition of poverty has broadened to include dimensions beyond income, an important development, policymakers have improved their ability to measure multidimensional poverty.

The Individual Deprivation Measure is a powerful example of how poverty measurement is being rethought.

It allows decision-makers to include in their understanding of poverty access to and quality of essential services, its non-material dimensions, like voice and social relationships, and intersectional analysis that reveals which social groups are being left behind.

Central to new approaches is a recognition that poverty cannot continue to be measured at the level of the household. An important step forward came in 2016 when the World Bank initiated the Global Commission on Poverty, which stated that decomposition of household-level data is simply insufficient – poverty must be measured on an individual basis.

Debates about how to measure poverty are not simply a theoretical exercise with little practical relevance, they matter deeply and determine a response. When the multidimensional nature of poverty is in the picture, policymakers are better able to identify and respond to structural barriers, deeply entrenched discrimination, and services that continually fail the poor.

When poverty is measured at the individual level, policy can move beyond the already discredited idea that resources are shared equally within a household. Decision-makers can better identify which social groups are most disadvantaged and why. Governments and service providers are able to respond on the basis of evidence.

The second trend occurring globally is a steady decline in extreme poverty – measured as those living on less than $1.25 prior to 2015, now revised upwards to those living on less than $1.90.

In 1990, 36 per cent of the world’s population lived in extreme poverty. By 2010, that figure decreased to 16 per cent, and by 2015 was at 10 per cent. At the end of 2018, the World Bank observed that extreme poverty was at its lowest level ever.

More on this:Poverty, homelessness, and welfare
This is a remarkable achievement. However, two issues must be kept in mind. First, the international cut-off for extreme poverty is very low. If it were increased to just $3.20, one-quarter of the world’s population would be living in poverty. A little further – to $5.50 – and 46 per cent of the world’s population would be defined as poor.

While great progress has been made, we cannot afford to be sanguine – the misery of poverty still affects half of all people around the globe.

In many countries, those who remain in poverty are those who are hardest to reach. For example, in Indonesia, poverty based on the national poverty line dropped below 10 per cent in 2019.

While the significance of this milestone should not be underestimated, in terms of numbers, 26 million people remain below the very low national poverty line.

For Indonesia, the greatest challenge remains. The most severely marginalised people – those hardest to identify and hardest to reach – are yet to move out of poverty. This is reflected across the region and the world.

The third global trend provides a less optimistic story – and one likely to undermine the achievements of recent years. It is a story in two parts.

First, the record of some of the wealthiest countries in addressing poverty in all its forms over the past five years is dismal.

In Australia for example, one in six children live in income poverty. In the United Kingdom, where government spending on children has fallen dramatically in recent years, child poverty is at 30 per cent. The apparent preparedness of wealthy countries to abandon efforts to end poverty is alarming.

It is even more so considering the apathy of these countries towards the global shift to assessing multidimensional poverty, rather than income alone, a change that has generally resulted in poverty measurements moving up to reflect reality. If the multidimensional nature of poverty in these countries was measured and included the stigma and shame that is created by unjust policies, these figures would be far worse.

The second part of this story is the failure of leaders to seriously address the climate emergency. Without action, new groups will be plunged into poverty and achievements in reducing global poverty could go into reverse.

Over the past five years, there have been positive trends in addressing poverty around the world. The adoption of ending poverty as a global goal, the shift towards multidimensionality in both assessments of and responses to poverty, the recognition that poverty must be assessed at the individual level, and the continuing downward trend in extreme income poverty globally are all great achievements.

However, they are countered by deeply disturbing trends, especially in wealthy countries, and the link between the climate emergency and poverty. These challenges must be addressed, or the last five years of progress may go to waste. If they are not addressed, it will amount to simply abandoning the most vulnerable to their fates, and settling for a world that is divided and deeply unjust.

Sharon Bessell
Dr Sharon Bessell is the Director of the Children’s Policy Centre in Crawford School of Public Policy, and the ANU lead on the Individual Deprivation Measure Project.

DREAM OF DISABLED KENYANS. A speech on 3rd December to commemorate the international day of persons with disabilities in Kenya. Author Mugambi Paul

As Lopita Nyong’o said “dreams are valid”

I am humbled and grateful as your Cabinet Secretary.
The Makueni governor,

My principle secretary,
NCPWD board and secretariat.,
The ministry of labor social services.
Distinguished disabled persons, wananchi hamjambo?

I’m preaching to the converted when I say that getting a job and having a job is an absolute game-changer in everybody’s life and that shouldn’t be any different for somebody who has a disability or somebody who lives without one.
The importance of the independence, the self-confidence, the skills and the connections to society and community that are created when you have a job are absolutely essential and not the least of which it means you have an income.
needless to say, we are committed as a Government around employment for all Kenyans but in my position as the Cabinet secretary for Labor and Social Services I’m very focussed on disability employment.
My one simple goal as the cabinet secretary responsible is to make sure we give Kenyans who have a disability access to the full suite of opportunities in the employment sector – whether it be self-employment, open employment, supported employment or other types of employment.
In other words, it is absolutely essential we continue to focus on that.
I want every Kenyan living with a disability who has the capacity to work to get a job.
In particular, I want to see more opportunities for every person who’s able to get into open employment, to actually be open employment.
I want to make sure that employers see employing a person with a disability as just a mainstream, everyday activity.
I want everybody who’s living with a disability to gain from the big for agenda plan by the president.

Furthermore, with respect to the world of work, Kenyans living with disabilities have historically faced serious challenges and barriers impeding their access to employment.
This represents a violation not only of their rights, but a loss for our societies and economies. Many persons with disabilities continue to face discrimination
with respect to opportunities and outcomes in the Kenya world of work.

According to Thorkil Sonne, Chairman of Denmark’s Council for Corporate Responsibility and Sustainable Development Goals (
“Results from many employers show that it makes good business sense to provide inclusive work environments for people with disabilities. You will get the
work done, and also harvest positive side-effects such as higher engagement, higher retention rate, joy of work, sense of purpose and improved management
skills in the workplace.”
Unfortunately, employment in Kenya does remain an issue for people with disability – I’m not telling you anything that you don’t know.its a proven fact that many employers in both public and private entities have continuously practiced marginalization and discriminatory tendencies [ILO 2017 Whiteford 2018]
For instance, some employers have failed to consult disable employees and thus arbitrarily transferring them.
This must stop since it causes mental distress and frustrate the employees with disabilities.
To make matters worse no provision of reasonable accommodation and measures are put into place.
As a government we shall take actions to ensure especially the public entities provide platform of consultation as envisaged in in the 2010 constitution. This is well supported by ensuring reasonable accommodation as enshrined in the UNCRPD and the public service disability mainstreaming regulations 2018.
My ministry will set the example by ensuring this is followed to the latter.
I also take note of Participation in the workforce for people with disability which is lower than those that live without a disability [daily nation 2015]
Participation rates for people without disability continues to improve in our workforce but participation rates for people with a disability hasn’t [Mugambi 2017[
In fact, at the moment there’s a 70-percentage point difference between the participation rate for people who are without disability and those with a disability.
Additionally, we are absolutely committed to make sure that we fix that problem and there is every reason that we can with the help of the people that are here in Makueni.
Improving employment outcomes is a high priority when it comes to disability and I’m sure that it’s absolutely the highest priority for Kenyan government.
But equally we understand that as Kenyan government there are things that we need to do, levers that we need to pull, policies that we need to put in place to ensure that we give you the best opportunity to deliver on behalf of the people in Kenya with disability.

Today, I wanted to talk about some of the key policy levers:
Social protection strategy.
NCPWD strategy
Persons with disability bill 2019.
Draft disability policy
National action plan on accessibility.
At the end of the day, my decisions are guided by what is best for the individual and that must be guided by the feedback that I get from individuals who live with disability and from people like you who engage on a day-to-day basis with the employment sector.
I hope the national employment authority, NCPWD, federation of Kenya employers and other stakeholders will be keen to realize this dream and vision of ensuring Kenyans with disabilities get to the job market.
Its clear in my mind employment of persons with disabilities is the most absolutely needful priority of all times.
We thank the NCPWD for the last 16 years for endeavoring to reach out to employers.
NCPWD through the disability mainstreaming have helped employers to get themselves up to speed in understanding what it is to employ somebody with a disability but, most importantly, to retain those people in the workforce.
Over the next 3 years, my ministry will collaborate with partners and ensure we commit to reducing the unemployment rate among Kenyans with disabilities.
This is through having substantial reforms which will ensure improved employment outcomes.

I am keen to hear back from you as to how you think things are going and what you would like to see us doing in the future so that we ensure that we maximize the opportunity for every Kenyan with a disability who wants to work to be able to get that job and keep it.
In other words, this will ensure disabled persons are at the co plans and get to participate in public policy reforms and implementation.
Moreover, A crucial element in all our efforts to increase the employment outcomes for people with disability is the attitude of employers.
It’s disappointing to see that whilst research points to the fact there is a desire for employers to employ people with disability, that desire doesn’t often translate into actual action.
A lack of confidence appears to remain in the wider employment sector about employing people with disability.
I want to work with you on how we encourage greater understanding in the employment sector about the huge benefits of employing somebody with a disability.
If we can just get the employers through the door, they will be able to understand that with the right support people with a disability can be some of the greatest employees that they will ever have.
I think that’s what we need to make sure to continue.
We can do better; we will do better and I’m sure working together that that outcome will actually be achieved.
We need to make sure we give people with disability access to the full suite of options for employment – be it self-employment, supported employment or mainstream private and public sector.
Lastly I promise Over the coming 12 months the Department will be working with all sectors, whether it be your sector, whether it be people with disability, whether it be the business community or county governments, to make sure that we develop a Disability Employment Strategy that starts to mainstream disability employment into everybody’s vocabulary.
Because clearly everybody benefits, absolutely everybody benefits, when more Kenyans are in working.
Lets all work towards achieving the global commitments we made in July 2018.
In conclusion can I just say thank you so much for the opportunity to be here today.
I hope you have a fantastic Christmas holiday.
Kindly do not drink and drive.
Kenya needs you more.
Happy new year 2020

The views expressed here are for the author and do not represent any agency or organization.
Mugambi Paul is a public policy, diversity, inclusion and sustainability expert.

Twelve Crimes of being disabled in Kenya Author: Paul M. Mugambi.

Twelve Crimes of being disabled in Kenya
Author: Paul M. Mugambi.

Twelve Crimes of being disabled in Kenya
Author: Paul M. Mugambi.

1. Only in Kenya where most government documents are written “physically challenged” in reference to persons with disabilities.
2. Only in Kenya both Government and private sector demand for a driving lisence even when they know Blind and Deaf-Blind persons will never drive on the Kenyan roads. Thus, denial of employment opportunity.
3. Only in Kenya we pay for the long and dreary processes of acquiring the disabled card while the national identity card is readily available and its free.
4.
Only in Kenya where government service providers one has to explain his or her disability before service is offered or denied. I wonder if other non-disabled citizens undergo this trauma.
5. Only in Kenya where Kenya revenue Authority demands renewal of tax exemption certificates to the disabled persons as if the permanent disabled persons got a miracle. You wonder why Kenya claims to be an IT herb while the KRA system can’t just update itself.
6. Only in Kenya where the invisible disabled persons are not recognized and lots of explanation is done.
7. Only in Kenya persons with disabilities have to organize themselves to educate service providers of their roles and responsibilities in service delivery to disabled persons.
8. Only in Kenya where most government offices are either inaccessible or located in inaccessible places.
9. Only in Kenya most government websites are in accessible and do not offer alternative formats in documentation.
10. Only in Kenya where most public and private adverts are written “Persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply” but they don’t take any extra measure to ensure disabled persons are brought on board.
11. Only in Kenya where disabled persons pay for the “disabled car sticker” for packing and even the disabled packing is already occupied by the non-disabled individuals.
12. Only in Kenya where disabled artists, musicians, sportspersons beg for government or private sector sponsorship to participate in both local and international events and obligations.

The views expressed here are for the author and do not represent any agency or organization.
Paul Mugambi is a public policy and diversity and inclusion expert.