Why the Kenya Revenue Authority should partake responsibility of tax exemption for the disabled Kenyans!

During the past 3 decades in Kenya there have been numerous changes in our society with respect to the management and treatment of people with disabilities.
Of course, there ar numerous success stories of actual improved disability mainstreaming.
How did the changes occur?
Many legislative and societal changes have taken place for instance, the disability act of 2003, the UNCRPD 2006 and the 2010 constitution and several disability related regulations. Furthermore, these gains have been necessitated by the lobbing and advocacy by disabled persons and their organizations.
On the other hand, Disability mainstreaming and work to end discrimination against disabled persons have been on both government and non-state actors’ agendas for decades. Why is disability mainstreaming still important?
Some of us feel that “everyone” in government and non-state actors who include development and human rights organisations are well aware of the issues. But the truth is that in organisations without
any explicit focus on disability mainstreaming or disability social justice, the levels of awareness for disability-based discrimination (and the need to end it) tend to be uneven.
Am not surprised by the inaccessible built environment, inaccessible information or the negative attitudes which still exist among the Kenyan society.

Efforts to promote disability equality remain limited and often isolated. Some would prefer to drop “disability” altogether, busy as they feel with all those other
issues that must be “mainstreamed” – good governance, environmental protection, HIV/AIDS prevention, “you name it!”

most government and private entities normally pass on the back when dealing with disability matters!
I opine that ignorance in the Kenyan society is very expensive for disabled persons.
Why should and institution require permission to offer disabled person a service?

As citizens we do not require permission to get a passport, when one has Malaria a disabled person doesn’t require permission.
Why does Kenya revenue authority run away from its responsibilities?
As long as one has uploaded the right documentation there is no need of putting more barrier for the disabled persons.
Why are policy makers silent on this injustice?
Most top government policy makers and stakeholders have done benchmarking of disability services in other countries and they know how good and proper systems work for the people.
Why are they not actualizing simple and impactful solutions to the disabled persons?

. But there are at least five reasons why “disability mainstreaming” must continue:
list of 5 items
1. Organisations that are committed to universal human rights have a responsibility to ensure their work respects and promotes human rights. Disabled rights
are human rights, enshrined in widely accepted international treaties as the Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities UNCRPD 2006.

Any rights-based approach that neglects disabled persons rights is inadequate.

2. International movements and campaigns rally large numbers of disabled people. Disabled persons make the largest minority group in the world

if government institutions who are the planners, implementers and evaluators ignore disabled interests and needs, and refrain from
engaging disabled persons as interlocutors, collaborators and allies.
They will never get it right!
3. Many development and human rights agencies are into education and campaigning – i.e., they attempt to spread ideas around, and to mobilise others to
join them in their cause. The messages they convey, implicitly or explicitly,
influence people’s minds: research has shown that campaigning can reinforce or weaken people’s value systems – broadly speaking, what they consider to
be “good” or “bad”, “right” or “wrong”. (See for example the gender mainstreaming angle.
Hence, it is important to avoid reinforcing values that condone discrimination and other violations against disabled persons
which would be in stark contradiction with the development and human rights goals most of us defend.
The disability organizations need to take lead in voicing what needs to be don on tax related concerns.
Disabled persons should not just be raising concerns on the social media but take the demands to the Kenya revenue authority.
The Kenya revenue authority need to work along side disabled persons in order to ensure smooth and faster process is achieved.
4. disability -based violence is not only one of the most pervasive human rights violations, it also jeopardises development. For example, large numbers of disabled persons have experienced delayed service delivery due to the bureaucratic processes. For instance, delayed in tax exemption renewal, with
dire consequences for their physical well-being, their mental health and their social status. Getting tax exemption is right, but y risk their
lives because of high cost of transport, psychological wellbeing. The Kenya revenue authority should know that most disabled persons are unemployed and for those who do not get access to the service
are likely to feel abused, something is deeply wrong.
Additionally, the Kenya economy is highly affected by wastage of hours on the road.
The tax exemption should have been simplified through decentralization of Kenya revenue authority services at the county.
In other words, if the digitalization process ways actualized the staff at Kenya revenue authority would be able to automatically issue exemption certificates without delay.
The disability mainstreaming focal point person at Kenya revenue has to actualize the dreams of disabled persons by ensuring the system works beyond himself or herself.
Are there government institutions, private sectors who have been given tax relief by the Kenya revenue authority for promoting disability employment and improving access for disabled persons in Kenya?
5. In terms of efficiency, any organisation has a responsibility to serve the disable persons who need their service.
Disabled persons should not be treated as second class citizen in government services.
Siting an example in 2019 May the Kenyan government in collaboration with world bank launched the braille version of the 2030 vision which in essence non blind persons read a decade ago. Is this fair?
The Kenyan policy makers need to stop the mancantile policy process and adapt solution-oriented policy and procedures.

The views expressed here are for the author and do not represent any agency or organization.
Mugambi Paul is a public policy and diversity and inclusion expert.

Scientists Discover How Blind People Know So Much About Appearances guest author Sarah Sloat

The philosopher John Locke, who believed that true knowledge of the world could only stem from sensory experiences, thought that blind individuals could never understand the concepts of light and color. Locke, it turns out, was wrong. In a recent PNAS study, blind people demonstrate that they do understand what sighted people process through vision, proving that “visual” ideas don’t actually require sight.
In the study published Tuesday, scientists demonstrated how blind people make visual sense of what they cannot see. While previous studies suggested that the most efficient way for a blind person to know that, say, a flamingo is pink, is to memorize that fact, this study demonstrates that blind people instead look at the world like scientists and make sense of the visual world through a catalogue of clues.
“First-person experience isn’t the only way to develop a rich understanding of the world around us,” co-author and Johns Hopkins doctoral candidate Judy Kim explains. “People often have the intuition that we can’t know what we can’t see.”
This intuition is wrong, as Kim and her colleagues showed by testing 20 blind and 20 sighted adults, all around 30 years old, about their knowledge of animal appearances. The participants were asked to order a variety of animals by size and height and to sort the animals into groups based on shape, skin texture, and color. They were also presented with a group of animals and asked which one was not like the others.
The study design.
In most cases, the sighted and blind people performed equally well on the test. They sorted the animals in predominantly the same way, and both agreed on which physical features comprised the predominant description of each group of animals. For example, both blind and sighted people described dolphins and sharks to be of similar shape.
What the two groups disagreed about the most was, strangely, the factor that the researchers hypothesized would be the most agreed upon: Color. Sighted participants sometimes had trouble describing the shape of an animal, but they always readily provided its color. Blind people did not. This outcome refuted the “learn-by-description” hypothesis, which posits that blind people learn about objects by hearing the way other people describe them. If this were the case, then the blind participants should have been able to identify color easily, since sighted people seem to always include color in their descriptions.
But color is what blind individuals were least able to identify. And so, the researchers argue that the “learn-by-description” hypothesis must be incorrect and that blind people must gather visual information in a different way: By deducing it from existing knowledge about an object and details related to it.
“In the absence of direct sensory access, knowledge of appearance is acquired primarily through interface, rather than through memorization of verbally stipulated facts,” the scientists write.
How would you describe “pink” without having seen pink?
In other words, blind people take the scientific approach and infer appearances through other properties like taxonomy and habitat. This strategy works well for features like shape and textures; for example, birds have feathers and wings, so it’s implied that this holds true across bird species. Color is less easy to infer. Since there are a lot of animals that are the same color, it’s hard to deduce that, say, bears and ravens are black, based on the other things you know about animals.
But color inaccuracies aside, the research proves what blind people already know: You can have a rich and accurate sense of the world without actually seeing it.
And sometimes, the approach blind people take actually helps them be more accurate. Here, 55 percent of the blind participants and 20 percent of the sighted participants said that sharks have scales; the majority of that group said they have skin. In reality, sharks have fine scales — they are just difficult to see.
Abstract:
How does first-person sensory experience contribute to knowledge? Contrary to the suppositions of early empiricist philosophers, people who are born blind know about phenomena that cannot be perceived directly, such as color and light. Exactly what is learned and how remains an open question. We compared knowledge of animal appearance across congenitally blind (n = 20) and sighted individuals (two groups, n = 20 and n = 35) using a battery of tasks, including ordering (size and height), sorting (shape, skin texture, and color), odd-one-out (shape), and feature choice (texture). On all tested dimensions apart from color, sighted and blind individuals showed substantial albeit imperfect agreement, suggesting that linguistic communication and visual perception convey partially redundant appearance information. To test the hypothesis that blind individuals learn about appearance primarily by remembering sighted people’s descriptions of what they see (e.g., “elephants are gray”), we measured verbalizability of animal shape, texture, and color in the sighted. Contrary to the learn-from-description hypothesis, blind and sighted groups disagreed most about the appearance dimension that was easiest for sighted people to verbalize: color. Analysis of disagreement patterns across all tasks suggest that blind individuals infer physical features from non-appearance properties of animals such as folk taxonomy and habitat (e.g., bats are textured like mammals but shaped like birds). These findings suggest that in the absence of sensory access, structured appearance knowledge is acquired through inference from ontological kind.

Joy and pain of raising a child with cerebral palsy By a Guest author: SIMON MBURU

When Susan Nyambura’s son was diagnosed with a developmental disorder immediately after birth, her husband abandoned them. Six years later, she soldiers
on.

“My name is Suzan Nyambura. I am a mother of a six-and a half-year-old boy. I still remember how my then-husband and I had eagerly waited for the birth
of our son, Gabriel Kamonzo.

In fact, the sheer ecstasy that overwhelmed me when I first took a pregnancy test and got positive results in early 2012 is still deeply etched in my mind.

I had a smooth pregnancy up until I went into labour that September. I checked in at a private hospital in Mombasa for delivery.

By then, my water had already broken. I was immediately admitted to the hospital’s maternity wing. Over the next two days, I underwent an extensive and
excruciating labour process.

WORRY, PANIC

The doctors examined my birth canal and concluded that I had not dilated enough. At some point, I requested for a caesarean delivery. But my request was
turned down. The doctors said I was not an emergency case.

I seemed stuck in labour. Painful but unfruitful contractions kept coming and going. But eventually, on September 12, I gave birth to a bouncing baby boy.

Seeing my baby pop out erased all the pain, struggle and shame that the labour and delivery process had bestowed on me. Tears ran freely down my cheeks.
At long last, here was my beautiful God-given son!

This joy, though, did not last. In fact, it ended as soon as the doctors started to examine my son moments after birth.

Instead of a sigh of relief and congratulatory glances, I saw worry and panic on their faces. Their facial expressions betrayed their concern that something
had gone wrong.

EXAMINATION

Then it hit me like a thunderbolt. My son had not cried upon birth! Although I was a new mother, I had heard that newborns were supposed to cry once they
popped out.

Failing to cry was an indicator of a defective birth process. I desperately tried to inquire what was wrong. But I was reassured that all was well.

I was told to stay put and wait for my episiotomy stitches. This was really the least of my concerns.

Later on when I left the delivery room, I was informed that the doctors had taken my son to the nursery, where they were examining him.

They found out that Gabriel’s neck was abnormally weaker. This was compounded by his failure to breastfeed when they brought him to me.

Over the next one week, I fed him on glucose and warm water while the doctors sought for a diagnosis to his problem.

DIAGNOSIS

On October 7, 2012, I was transferred to Coast General Hospital. By then Gabriel was 10 days old.

The doctors recommended that we observe him over the next three months and see if his neck would firm up. But it didn’t.

By the third month, I took him to Kenyatta National Hospital, where he was diagnosed with cerebral palsy. This is a medical condition that affects a child’s
muscle tone, movement or posture.

It is caused by brain damage that occurs before or during a baby’s birth, or during the first three to five years of a baby’s life. This diagnosis left
me utterly terrified and confused.

My baby was so tiny and helpless! Yet, the more I inquired about his condition the more scared for his life I became.

I was afraid that he would develop breathing problems, have no control of his bladder and bowel movement, and drool throughout the rest of his life.

ABANDONED

Perhaps I would not have worried too much if someone had held my hand and told me that it was all going to be okay.

But there was no such person I could have leaned on! Friends kept away, and some of those who reached out claimed that my baby was cursed, and that I needed
to take special prayers and cleansing to cast out whatever spell had befallen him.

The most disheartening of all was the abandonment by my baby daddy. He said Gabriel was not his son.

Although I had named my son after his father, he completely rejected him after the diagnosis.

He claimed that he could not have fathered a child with such a disability. Over the next few years, I tried to reach out to him because I wanted my son
to have a father in his life. But he shut us out completely.

#TOUGH TIMES

It is now six years since my son came into this world. We are still on the recovery journey, but raising him has not been easy at all.

There are some days when his condition becomes too overwhelming for me, especially when he is unwell.

I cry a lot and at times question God on why my little boy has had to suffer so much. It really breaks my heart when I see him struggle to meet basic development
milestones.

His growth is very slow. Today, he can’t sit on his own and relies on a wheelchair. He also can’t talk or even walk.

But perhaps the hardest and most tormenting moment is when I am unable to provide food because I am joblessness.

I remember that I had to start working as mama fua (laundry and cleaning lady) in order to fend for him a few weeks after his birth.

#HEALTHCARE

It was not easy. I was forced to go knocking door-to-door asking for home cleaning jobs with my ailing son strapped on my back.

A few weeks ago, I left my son behind in Nairobi and travelled to Mombasa, where I am currently looking for a job as a bouncer.

I have pegged my hope in God that something will show up and give me the much needed income so that I can sufficiently care for my child.

He is currently not undergoing any medication or therapy, and I would wish to enrol him in a corrective physical, occupational and speech therapies that
will help improve his life.

Above all, I have learnt to keep my head above the water by constantly reminding myself that this is my son, and God had a good purpose for giving him
to me.
Every day, I pray for him. I hope one day he will realise just how much I love him, and how much he means to me.”

Why the disability sector in Kenya needs a urgent transformation

Persons with disabilities in Kenya account for 15 % of the population [WHO 2011].
Yet they are the most marginalized and lack the basic services from the government.
Obviously since the independence persons with disabilities have been treated as second class citizens.
This is because of the existence of economic, social and political disparities.
on the other hand, others argue Both government and the private sector have played a critical role towards development and design of disability policies.
This is evidently seen by the persons with disability act 2003, the special needs policy 2009 draft disability policy, national accessibility action plan 2015.
All these gains are towards improving lives of persons with disabilities. Therefore, we need to have a third eye lenses to ask ourselves.
Are these policies achieving their objectives? Are persons with disabilities able to effectively participate and included in all services?
The jury is out there.
As the 47 governor’s meet in Kirinyaga for their sixth annual conference in March 2019, a time has come for them to seriously interrogate how they can enhance access to services for persons with disabilities

Basic services and functions were devolved but persons with disabilities have received a raw deal.
The lack of national disability framework where the national government offers regulation to the counties and policy guidance has rendered persons with disabilities inactive and denial of services at the county levels.
This has greatly led persons with disabilities to be left behind thus not meeting the vision 2030 and the famous sustainable development goals. SDGS.

If county governments do not properly entrench disability matters in the ‘Big Four” agenda that is defining Jubilee’s development plan, as it presently looks, desired results
will not be achieved even if the national government yields to the ongoing clamour and cedes more cash to the devolved regions.

County governments are the game-changer in two of the Big Four agenda items, namely expansion of the manufacturing sector, and food security. The central
government must be applauded for the huge infrastructure projects it has initiated to connect the counties. The question is these infrastructures accessible to persons with disabilities?
With this massive project we need to have third eye lenses and ask ourselves are persons with disabilities properly being included?
For instance, in employment what percentage of persons with disabilities were involve?
In the tenders were persons with disabilities engaged?
Its high time the county governments
shed off their wasteful and autonomous and unaccountable attitude and explain their disability mainstreaming agenda.

Devolution gave persons with disabilities hope that it would bring services closer to citizens, increase job opportunities and improve governance. Far from it, if the reports
on the impact of devolution are anything to go by.

Unfortunately, persons with disabilities affairs in the counties have been identified as a main agenda but only to be pushed at the periphery and set in to other broad areas such as social services.
Furthermore, most counties have no dedicated advisors or policies on disability matters.
This is reflected by the low service delivery a lack of mechanisms to support disability mainstreaming.
According to ILO the largest minority in the world are persons with disabilities.
They highly face discrimination, stigma and institutional barriers.
Thus, many persons with disabilities cannot afford basic necessities like food, shelter, clothing, healthcare, and education.
There is also the need to increase the participation of persons with disabilities in governance at the county level. Most of the counties have not adequately engaged persons with disabilities
in designing, planning and implementing programmes. As a result, the knowledge, skills and energy that the persons with disabilities full population harbours goes underutilised.
As a public policy scholar, I opine that its high time. The disability sector in Kenya got a transformation.
This transformation would gain more tract to the citizens with disabilities.
Some of the key areas is moving from charity to human rights in service implementation.
Provide individual choices thus promotion of respect and dignity to persons with disabilities.
The disability sector should immediately stop talking to itself.
Stop board room meetings and step in the the mud.
This will ensure bottom top approach in public participation of persons with disabilities.
This is because the county governments are the service delivery points and more resources are being devolved..
To eliminate the possibility of alienating this potentially most productive group, decision-makers and other stakeholders at the national and county level must take deliberate steps to ensure the persons with disabilities are at the centre of development plans.
This is by having a national disability framework which stipulates the role of the national and county governments in service delivery for persons with disabilities.

Paul Mugambi
Is a public policy and diversity and inclusion expert.

My third eye on Kenya’s disability movement

It has been argued from different quarters that the attitude of entitlement without responsibility has contributed to apathy among persons with Disabilities.
Kenyan persons with Disabilities should be encouraged to become proactive in ensuring good governance practices and use their creativity to ensure that they find their rightful
space in policy and decision making.
Failure to do this will mean that they have accepted to continually be marginalised.
Accountability is critical in ensuring that political leaders and all duty bearers honour their commitments and shows how different programme actions and
investment of public funds translate into tangible results and long-term outcomes that directly benefit persons with Disabilities . Accountability mechanisms should allow for grievances to be voiced and remedies provided and, as a responsive function, should help to improve how policy
or service delivery can be adjusted to make it more effective.
Efforts should be made to build capacity for persons with Disabilities to claim their rights and engage as active citizens.

An effective accountability mechanism is one that has the ability to transparently show the linkages between national and county levels with strong feedback
information loops.

This accurate and timely information has the potential to help in supporting national and county recommendations, actions and approaches aimed at reaching
the goals that support persons with Disabilities meet their aspirations and live a prosperous life.

Working with persons with Disabilities , especially in complex processes like planning, budgeting and monitoring, is crucial if development policies are to be truly
relevant to those they are meant to serve.
Sometimes participation and collaboration becomes difficult when review processes are complex and hard to interpret.

Persons with Disabilities should demand leaders to provide information in alternative format that is interactive and language that they can understand. All this is enshrined in Kenyan constitution and the UNCRPD.

An environment in which feedback is shared should also be considered.

If possible it should be easy to access without necessarily incurring costs.

Political leaders can only be said to be accountable if they listen and respond to the needs of persons with Disabilities people in a clear manner, explain action taken to
rectify whatever recommendations made and a guarantee that it will not be repeated.

This can be through actions like legislative reforms, innovative planning processes and prioritised funds allocation.

In conclusion, non-discriminative feedback mechanisms and effective follow-up processes is a means of verifying that an effective accountability mechanism
is in place.
The Constitution of Kenya has already defined duties, responsibilities and rights, so what is critical is to create strong linkage and integration both
at national and county levels because decisions are made through a network of actors.
For instance in the recently held general elections the Disability community was duped by the independent electro commissionin many ways.
There were no braille ballots at all. To make matters worse 17 counties left out the nominees with disabilities and for the 30 counties that had still had anomalies. Its still gloomy for women with disabilities as history has shown us they are often left out by women with out disabilities as they champion the women agenda and more sore the 2 third gender rule.
Never the less its important to note at the high level UNCRPD forum in August 2015 Kenya nation proclaimed that they provide free legal service when the rights of persons with disabilities have been ignored plus they provided accessible ballot in 2013.
We are yet to see the steps in which the state law office takes this matter in to consideration.
The litmus test that Kenyan persons with Disabilities should use is whether political leaders have put accountability mechanisms and pathways in place that are inclusive,
accessible, collaborative and responsive clearly showing how they will be structured and work in practice.

NB The views expressed here do not represent any agency or organization they are based on 17 years experience as a disability practitioner and human rights defender.

Few Discrimination experiences at its best In Kenyan context

Every Day:

1) Store employees assuming we’re stupid:Go to the grocery
store, the movie theater, a store in the mall, a restaurant or any
public-type place that has
employees, and five times out of ten you’ll run into an employee who
will automatically assume you’re ill-equipped mentally because of an
obvious visual
disability.

2) buses and matatus passing us by:If you live in a big outscuts like
Umoja, Rwai, Gidhurai, eastlands chances are you’ve experienced buses and matatus
passing you by quite often. People with disabilities
constantly complain that buses pass them by when they’re out on the
road trying to hail a cab.
3) Stairs in public spaces.You go to grab a coffee or meet a friend
for lunch, visit some office but wait – you can’t get in. This is architecture
discrimination at its
finest and we encounter it every day. Despite the misguided notion
that certain buildings are grandfathered-in to the persons with
disability act and do not need to be accessible,
umm no, they do. Any public space must. crossing most roads for us is a night mare.

4) Doctors not really listening.Out of all the people we encounter
each day who may possibly discriminate against us, you’d think medical
personnel would
not be on the list, however doctors and nurses can be some of the most
discriminatory people when it comes to how they treat people with
disabilities.
some one asked my tribe mate when she was pregnant “which animal did
this to you” you can imagine how it sounds when spoken in swahili! 5)
Wheelchair “quotas.”“Sorry, no more wheelchairs allowed.” Concert
venues, airplanes, city buses, amusement park rides – quotas on how
many wheelchairs
are allowed in certain places are a reality of disabled life. They’re
instated for safety, but they’re also highly limiting, generally only
allowing a
half dozen people with disabilities or so into an event or two people
who use wheelchairs on a city bus.

6) Strangers pretending they don’t see us.Once in awhile you’ll run
into someone who’s not very pleasant. Maybe they’re budding in line in
front of you,
or avoiding your gaze when you’re looking for someone to help you grab
something from the shelf. These folks like to pretend they don’t see
us, thinking
it’s easier to do that than just interact with us.

7) People taking our parking spots.It happens all the time –
able-bodied individuals parking in disability parking spaces. The
convenience is just too
hard to deny. And while this is all fine and dandy when it’s in the
middle of the night and there’s no one else at the store, they
generally take our spots
in the daytime, especially the good ones that have extra room for our
ramps. some government offices have turned the unisex accessible
toilets to be stores.